Case Types

DRD data explores 28 different arbitration/mediation case types.  These case type definitions have been created based on extensive work with our data contributors.  

Aerospace & Defense

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Subtypes: Aerospace Defense & Security

The Aerospace & Defense category consists of disputes involved in the production of spacecrafts and commercial military and private aircrafts. This also includes manufacturers of military equipment, such as tanks and related vehicles, bombs, missiles, associated navigational and guidance systems, artillery, ammunition and other related weaponry.

Agriculture

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Disputes about the science, art, or occupation concerned with cultivating land, raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock; farming.

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

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Subtypes: Arts · Media & Publishing · Sports & Recreation

The Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation category includes disputes with regards to a wide range of establishments that operate facilities or provide services to meet varied cultural, entertainment, and recreational interests of their patrons. This comprises (1) establishments that are involved in producing, promoting, or participating in live performances, events, or exhibits intended for public viewing; (2) establishments that preserve and exhibit objects and sites of historical, cultural, or educational interest; and (3) establishments that operate facilities or provide services that enable patrons to participate in recreational activities or pursue amusement, hobby, and leisure-time interests.

Business Ownership

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Subtypes: Enterprises (Shareholder disputes) · Joint Ventures · Mergers & Acquisitions · Partnerships

Disputes about the form or function of ownership that a business has set-up and is operating under. Entity that has an enforceable claim about the business ownership.

Commercial Contracts

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Subtypes: Agency · Business Broker · Concession & Leasing · Franchise Agreements · Purchase & Sales · Unfair Competition

A commercial contract refers to a legally binding agreement between parties in which they are obligated to do or restrain from doing particular things. Commercial contracts can be written, verbal, or implied in a formal or an informal manner. Commercial contract can include all aspects of a business, such as hiring, wages, leases, loans and employee safety. A dispute of commercial contract takes place when a party claims that another party has failed to live up to the agreements.

Commercial Services

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Subtypes: Factoring · Household & Office Needs · Industrial Services · Maintenance · Sponsoring

Commercial services are services that a company provides to other businesses. Commercial service includes "any type of trade or business involving the transportation of goods or individuals, except service performed by a combatant vessel."

Construction

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Subtypes: Contracts · Design & Engineering · Labor

Construction law is a branch of law that deals with matters relating to building construction, engineering and related fields. Construction law covers a wide range of legal issues including contract, negligence, bonds and bonding, guarantees and sureties, liens and other security interests, tendering, construction claims, and related consultancy contracts.

Education

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Education law is a set of regulations that are put in place to unify institutions as well as hold them accountable.

Employment

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Subtypes: Employment Plan · Executive Employment · Staffing/Employment Agency

The area of law that covers all aspects of employer and employee relationships except the negotiation process covered by labor law and collective bargaining.

Energy

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Subtypes: Exploration · Product Distribution · Product Transmission · Oil/Gas

Energy laws govern the use and taxation of energy, both renewable and non-renewable.

Environmental

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Environmental law- or "environmental and natural resources law" - is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, and common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the naturalenvironment.

Financial Services & Banking

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Subtypes: Commercial banking · Financial Services · Securities Investments

Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds and some government-sponsored enterprises

Healthcare

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Subtypes: Biotechnology · Medical Devices · Pharmaceuticals

Comprises of providers of diagnostic, preventive, remedial, and therapeutic services such as doctors, nurses, hospitals and other private, public, and voluntary organizations. It also includes medical equipment and pharmaceutical manufacturers and health insurance firms.

Hospitality & Travel

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Subtypes: Food & Beverage · Accommodations

Hospitality laws relate to food service, travel, and lodging industries. It governs the various nuances of the hotel, restaurant, bar, spa, country club, meeting, and convention industries, among others. Much like entertainment law, homeowners association law, and other specialty fields, hospitality law is much more a description of the types of clients who seek out the attorneys who focus their practices in these areas rather than an actual set of laws. Hospitality law commonly encompasses a wide array of laws including contracts, anti-trust, torts, real estate, and many others.

Insurance & Reinsurance

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Subtypes: Copyright · Trademark · Licensing · Patent · Purchase & Sales · Unfair Competition

International property disputes deal with the issues related to securing and enforcing legal rights to inventions, designs, and artistic works.

Intellectual Property

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Subtypes: Copyright · Trademark · Licensing · Patent · Purchase & Sales · Unfair Competition

International property disputes deal with the issues related to securing and enforcing legal rights to inventions, designs, and artistic works.

Licensing Agreements

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A licensing agreement is a legal contract between two parties, known as the licensor and the licensee. In a typical licensing agreement, the licensor grants the licensee the right to produce and sell goods, apply a brand name or trademark, or use patented technology owned by the licensor. These cases about disputes between the parties involved in a licensing agreement.

Manufacturing

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Subtypes: Automotive · Industrial Equipment

Manufacturing Laws are those regulations and statutes that relate to the manufacturing industry. Product Liability: A major issue for some manufacturers, particularly automakers, is dealing with alleged product defects. Consolidation: Because of the changing face of manufacturing, consolidation has been a trend for manufacturers for a number of years. As such, manufacturing laws can also be considered to bleed into the areas of corporate formation, governance, and mergers. Advertising and Marketing: Another area manufacturers often have to be aware of is the law pertaining to marketing and advertising their products. Employment and Labor:No product can reach the market without the labor of human beings. That means there is always an opportunity for issues related to employment and labor.

Mass Claims / Class Actions

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The key difference between mass torts and class actions has to do with how, procedurally, the large group of plaintiffs is treated. Mass torts often involve injuries to a distinct group of individuals who may reside in the same geographic area. The number of people injured in mass tort cases are sometimes smaller than those injured in larger class actions. With mass torts each plaintiff, even though they are part of a large group, is treated as an individual. In a class action the large group of plaintiffs, known collectively as the class, are represented by a class representative, who stands in for the rest of the class. This means all members of the class are treated as one plaintiff, not separately.

Mining & Raw Materials

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Includes: Oil & Gas · Steel/Metals · Chemicals, Plastic & Rubber

Mining law is the branch of law relating to the legal requirements affecting minerals and mining. Mining law covers several basic topics, including the ownership of the mineral resource and who can workthem.

Nonprofits & Public Administration

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Disputes about the administration of government agencies, nonprofit organizations and other civil institutions.

Other

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This is selected if a case does not fit into one of the defined categories. Data contributors can share information about these cases so that we can continually enhance dispute resolution case types.

Professional & Technical Services

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Includes: Accounting · Advertising/Marketing/PR · Legal Services · Management/Business Consulting · Engineering · Independent Contractor/Consultant

Professional services are occupations in the tertiary sector of the economy requiring special training in the arts or sciences. Some professional services require holding professional licenses such as architects, auditors, engineers, doctors and lawyers. Other professional services involve providing specialist business support to businesses of all sizes and in all sectors; this can include tax advice, supporting a company with accounting, or providing management advice.

Real Estate

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Includes: Land · Buildings · Structures permanently attached to land & buildings · Realty/Real Property

Real estate is the modern term for land and anything that is permanently affixed to it. Fixtures include buildings, fences, and things attached to buildings, such as plumbing, heating, and light fixtures.

Technology

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Disputes in the information technology field such as design and management of information systems; costs, system design, and suitability of information equipment and related services; and development of integrated information systems. Information technology includes computers, hardware, software, and other technology equipment and services.

Telecommunications

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Disputes about the transmission of words, sounds, images, or data in the form of electronic or electromagnetic signals or impulses. Wireless communications services include amateur, cellular, paging, broadband services, public safety, and more.

Transportation & Storage

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Includes: Transportation · Packaging, Handling & Warehouses

The definition of transportation and storage disputes covers: land transport, transport via pipelines, water transport, air transport, warehousing, support activities for transportation, and postal & courier services.

Wholesale & Retail Trade

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Includes: Supplier · Textile/Apparel · Equipment Sale/Lease/Maintenance · General Trade & Distribution

Wholesalers are organized to sell or arrange the purchase or sale of (a) goods for resale (i.e., goods sold to other wholesalers or retailers), (b) capital or durable non-consumer goods, and (c) raw and intermediate materials and supplies used in production. Distributors: Distributors frequently have a business relationship with manufactures that they represent. Wholesalers: Wholesalers generally buy a large quantity of products directly from distributors. Retailers: Retailers consist of small and large for-profit businesses that sell products directly to consumers.